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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 64 (1992)
CONTENTS


Two Early Mesolithic Sites In The Central Pennines by P.B. Stonehouse

This report describes the excavation of two upland broad blade Mesolithic occupation sites in the central Pennines. Though within a short distance of each other, the first site (Pule Hill Base) is of Deepcar type, while the other (Turnpike) is of Star Carr type and is close to Warcock Hill South, a site excavated by Francis Buckley in the 1920s, with a similar flint industry. Suggestions are made about the size and shape of the occupation floors, and chronological problems are discussed.

 

Early Iron Age Pottery From Castle Hill, Almondbury West Yorkshire by J.A. Gilks

The earthworks which encircle Castle Hill, Almondbury represent the remains of one of Yorkshire’s largest early iron-age hill-forts. It was excavated by Professor W. J. Varley of Hull University between 1939 and 1972. The excavations centred on sectioning the ramparts at various points and in the limited examination of the gateways and interior of the fort. Unfortunately Varley’s death in 1976 spelt the end of the Castle Hill project, which was never published in detail. However, from the one expanded summary report, and a number of interims, he wrote on work undertaken at Castle Hill, the incomplete site archive preserved in the Tolson Memoiral Museum, Huddersfield, and a series of radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dates, an acceptable chronology for the construction and development of this important hill-fort has been established.

Of the prehistoric artefacts recovered, undoubtedly the most important are three groups of sherds, one from the 1939 excavations, the other two deriving from work undertaken between 1969 and 1972, on respectively sites 4, and 32 and 35. The pottery from the last two mentioned form the subject of the present report. That from site 4, which includes a salt pot and two lids, will be discussed in a broader study being undertaken on these ceramic types.

 

An Anglian Site On The Yorkshire Wolds - Continued by D. Haldenby

The metal detector survey of this notable mid-Saxon site, first featured in YAJ 1990, continued throughout 1990 and the finds, principally made during that year, form the basis of the present article, along with some comment on their distribution and wider significance. The find rate has now diminished to approximately one artefact per six hours’ detecting.

The site lies on arable land on the Yorkshire Wolds in the parish of Cottam and Cowlam, the exact location being withheld as a contribution to the site’s protection. Further complementary field-walking is proposed when field conditions are suitable.

 

Excavations At Castle Hill, Castleton, North Yorkshire by S.J. Sherlock

Excavation was undertaken in July 1988 at Castle Hill, Castleton, North Yorkshire, in advance of building work. The site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument within which a farmhouse and outbuildings were constructed in the eighteenth century. Castleton Castle is a horseshoe-shaped ringwork measuring 100m east-west and 90m north-south. The site is located towards the western end of the Esk valley at an altitude of 160m O.D. It overlooks the River Esk and commands a north-south route across the North York Moors. The castle earthworks have been damaged by the construction of a road in the nineteenth century as well as by the surviving farm buildings. The redevelopment of the site necessitated Schedule Ancient Monument Consent which required that archaeological deposits likely to be affected by building activities had to be the subject of archaeological excavation. The results of the work, contracted to Cleveland County Archaeology Section and directed by the author are considered here.

 

Medieval Pottery Industries At Staxton And Potter Brompton, East Yorkshire by T.C.M. Brewster & C. Hayfield

In the late 1940s Tony Brewster excavated two sites in the Vale of Pickering, at Newnham’s Pit at Staxton and Carr House Farm at Flixton. Both produced quantities of medieval pottery in a coarse, heavily sand-tempered fabric which he suggested had probably been produced from kilns situated somewhere along the northern foot of the Wolds between Flotmanby and Scagglethorpe. This scarp, he observed, contained plentiful sand deposits for tempering, while the local Speeton Clays were suitable for potting. Nearby peat deposits would also have provided a slow-burning, but adequate fuel supply.

The village of Potter Brompton seemed the most likely source for the industry. Apart from its name, several wasters had been located in the field opposite Potter Hill Farm. He began excavation there in January 1953, with a further short season early the following year, discovering large amounts of pottery and several features which he interpreted as pit kilns. This paper examines the pottery industry in this area.

 

Cawood: An Archiepiscopal Landscape by N.K. Blood & C.C.Taylor

In late 1989 the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England surveyed the earthworks lying within the large area of open land known as Castle Garth, Cawood. The work was undertaken at the request of the Cawood Parish Council who wished for information on the site prior to the establishment of a new management plan. The survey was carried out by N. K. Blood, with the assistance of P. Sinton. Documentary material was provided by Dr B. Jones. The full archive is held by the National Monuments Record and aerial photographs by the Air Photography Unit of the Royal Commission.

The remains of Castle Garth have their own intrinsic interest as the presumed site of the outer court and gardens of one of the palaces of the medieval archbishop of York and are worth publishing on those grounds alone. However, the overall setting of the site and its relationship to the remarkable standing buildings of the palace and, more particularly, to the village of Cawood and its associated landscape is such that this more comprehensive paper has been written.

 

The Cult Of 'St' Thomas Of Lancaster And Its Iconography by J. Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to give some account of the cult of ‘St’ Thomas of Lancaster, and to collate, probably for the first time, the various examples of its iconography.

 

The Dating Of York Minster Choir by T.W. French

Some years ago the author wrote an article supporting the traditional date of 1361-1373 for the construction of the lady chapel of York Minster (i.e. the four easternmost bays of the eastern arm). In these notes the author considers the dating of the five western bays of the eastern arm. Throughout this article these five bays are referred to as ‘the choir’, but it is important to remember that in the mediaeval documents ‘the choir’ was a general term for the whole of the eastern arm of the Minster. It has been impossible to reconcile the traditional dating of the choir with the evidence, positive and negative, of the structure and the documents, and therefore the author has set out in the article the published views on the dating, followed by the author’s interpretation of various items of evidence.

 

Wild Men In The Misericords Of St. Mary's Church, Beverley by B. Moore

Beverley, in East Yorkshire, is fortunate to have two fine sets of medieval misericords: the Minster has sixty-three (dating from 1520) and the church of St Mary has twenty-three (dating from 1445). The misericords of the Minster have received a fair amount of attention, most notably by T. Tindall Wildridge. The misericords of St Mary’s have received relatively less attention. This is unfortunate, since three of them provide some interesting evidence for the development of the ‘wild-man’ or ‘wodewose’ motif in English art and literature. These are considered here.

 

Scrope Tapestries by H. Murray

In 1987, during a routine search for ‘lost’ or ‘forgotten’ artefacts at York Minster, three late Victorian picture frames were discovered in a store room in the stone-yard. Two of their glasses were broken but, luckily, this had not harmed their soiled and dusty contents which proved to be fragments of medieval tapestry ― two displaying the arms of Scrope of Masham and the third what appeared to be the head, body, one wing and one leg of an eagle displayed. They were secured by metal tacks to wooden boards contemporary with the frames, two having ‘men’s vestry No. 2 and No. 3’ inscribed in pencil on their backs. In view of the importance of these fragments, which were much earlier than most other fabrics in the care of the Dean and Chapter, the only survivors of the considerable quantity of medieval textiles once possessed by York Minster, they were sent to the Castle Howard Textile Conservation Centre for cleaning and conservation. The tapestries are considered here.

 

Mining And Smelting In Yorkshire By The Cliffords, Earls Of Cumberland, In The Tudor And Early Stuart Period by R.T. Spence

A feature of English economic development in the early modern era was the quickening pace of the search for and conversion of mineral deposits, aided by improved mining and smelting techniques. Demand for coal as an alternative fuel to wood, and for metals for agricultural and mining implements, industrial processes, domestic utensils, weapons and export were stimulated by the rise in population, the great rebuilding, recurrent warfare and an expanding overseas trade. At the forefront of the more intensive utilisation of mineral resources were the great landowning families. Nowhere is this more evident than in the North of England. The contribution of the Cliffords, earls of Cumberland to this seminal phase in the establishment of the extractive industries in Westmorland has been considered in a previous article. The purpose here is to describe their projects in Yorkshire and especially in Craven where they were the dominant landlords.

 

Robinsons Of Newby Park And Newby Hall. Part 2 by G. Hinchliffe

A Naval Career

Tancred Robinson was born on the 30th August 1686, the second surviving son of Sir William. During his boyhood it was decided that he should make the royal Navy his career, and in December 1705 he was appointed to her Majesty’s ship Albemarle as fifth lieutenant, although an undated letter from his elder brother Metcalfe suggests that he may have been at sea much earlier, perhaps in the nominal rating of officer’s servant. Tancred’s career is considered here.

 

Recent Archaeological Work In The Dioceses Of Ripon And Wakefield 1970-1990 by L. Butler

The publication of an investigation at Crofton church in YAJ 62, 1990, was the product of the author’s membership of the Wakefield Diocesan Advisory Committee. The work of this committee and of its parallel body in Ripon diocese has produced a steady stream of watching briefs and opportunities for archaeological observation over the past twenty years. This article identifies the main trends in that work and comments upon specific cases.

Aerial Archaeology In Yorkshire: A 'Starfish' Site by A. Crawshaw

Dr Arthur Raistrick [obituary]

H.G. Ramm (1922-91) [obituary]

 

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